Sunday, October 30, 2011

Inject in toInstance binding

With Guice it is extremely easy to add to injector self-constructed beans. But what was not very intuitive for me is that various inject annotations in these beans will have their influence on the state of the bean. Here is very simple illustration to this fact:

package com.sopovs.moradanen;

import javax.inject.Inject;


public class ToInstanceTest {
    public static void main(String[] args) {
        Injector injector = Guice.createInjector(new Module() {
            public void configure(Binder binder) {
                binder.bind(Foo.class).toInstance(new Foo());
        Foo foo = injector.getInstance(Foo.class);

    private static class Foo {
        String value;
The output of this java program is "hello". At first I was really surprised.

Saturday, October 29, 2011

Synchronized vs atomic

In a very good book Java Concurrency in Practice one of the first example is about generating sequence of unique numbers. To ways of making it thread-safe are mentioned - using synchronized method and using internally atomic object. Here is another little benchmark, this time - comparing these approaches. The result can be seen from this chart:

And here is the code, that I used to make data for it:

Thursday, October 13, 2011

Synchronization on instance vs static method

Simple the difference is that synchronizing on instance method is like writing synchronized (this) and synchronizing on static method is like writing synchronized (FooBar.class).
If you want not so simple explanation, here it is:

ConcurrentModificationException in the nutshell

package com.sopovs.moradanen;

import java.util.ArrayList;
import java.util.Arrays;
import java.util.List;

public class ConcurrentModificationExceptionTest {

    public static void main(String[] args) {
        List<String> list = new ArrayList(Arrays.asList("first"));
        for (String el : list) {
Results in

Exception in thread "main" java.util.ConcurrentModificationException
at java.util.ArrayList$Itr.checkForComodification(
at java.util.ArrayList$
at com.sopovs.moradanen.ConcurrentModificationExceptionTest.main(

Update: This may look strange, though...

ArrayList<String> list = new ArrayList<String>(Arrays.asList("foo", "bar"));
for (String el : list) {
    //Capacity will not be increased, but iterator will fail...

Saturday, October 8, 2011

ForkJoin factorial calculation

Several months ago I wrote a multithreaded factorial method.  It was very simple from the point of view of the underlying technology, but not so trivial from the point of view of synchronizing threads. It used simple start() and join() methods that are available since the Java 1.0 And than I thought that with all the power of java I can improve it. So i used the ThreadPoolExecutor - a piece of technology from the Java 5 and really improved - here is my post about multithreaded factorial using TreadPoolExecutor.

But Java 5 is a bit old now. And this year the Java 7 has been released! So here is the new version - using the new ForkJoin Framework available in it. Actually when I started writing this simple piece of code is didn'nt think that the result can be like that. I thought that all the power of my 4-core processor was already utilized by the variant with the ThreadPoolExecutor and considered this new method only as an exercise on the new API. I previewed that new version may be simpler as this is one of the stated goals of ForkJoin Framework and it is. But the actual performance increase was absolutely unforeseen by me.

So no more jabber, here are the results:

21 seconds for ForkJoin
27 seconds for ThreadPoolExecutor

Here is the code:

    private static BigInteger factFjPool(int input, int numThreads)
            throws InterruptedException, ExecutionException {
        ForkJoinPool forkJoinPool = new ForkJoinPool(numThreads);
        ForkJoinTask<BigInteger> future = forkJoinPool.submit(new FactorialRecursiveTask(1, input + 1));
        return future.get();

    private static class FactorialRecursiveTask extends RecursiveTask<BigInteger> {
        private static final long serialVersionUID = 1L;

        private static final int THRESHOLD = 1000;

        private final int lo, hi;

        public FactorialRecursiveTask(int lo, int hi) {
            this.lo = lo;
            this.hi = hi;

        protected BigInteger compute() {
            if (hi - lo < THRESHOLD) {
                BigInteger result = BigInteger.valueOf(lo);
                for (int i = lo + 1; i < hi; i++) {
                    result = result.multiply(BigInteger.valueOf(i));
                return result;
            } else {
                int mid = (lo + hi) >>> 1;

                FactorialRecursiveTask f1 = new FactorialRecursiveTask(lo, mid);
                FactorialRecursiveTask f2 = new FactorialRecursiveTask(mid, hi);
                return f2.compute().multiply(f1.join());

I've tried to improve the previous version using other amount of threads, since this version obviously uses division into mush smaller sub-tasks, but to no result. Maybe I used wrong BlockingQueue<Runnable>, but this may be regarded as the simplicity of using this API. And definitely ForkJoinFramework is superior here, since not only decision about which Queue to use is not needed but also the division into sub-tasks is much simpler.

As usual the full code for this example may be found on github.